Abstract - Jenny will discuss her new book How Artifacts Afford: The Power and Politics of Everyday Things (MIT Press, 2020). Affordances are the ways design features enable and constrain user engagement and social action. This book introduces the mechanisms and conditions framework of affordances in which technologies request, demand, encourage, discourage, refuse, and allow in ways that vary across contexts and between different people. The framework shifts the question in affordance analysis from what technologies afford to how technologies afford, for whom, and under what circumstances? This talk will address the politics and power encoded in sociotechnical systems and demonstrate a simple framework for technological analysis and design.
Abstract - This thesis examines the role that advertising plays in the creation and trading of the audience commodity and what impact new forms of digital advertising have had on the audience marketplace. The audience marketplace, which consists of advertisers, audiences, media and audience measurement, has been examined from a variety of theoretical and epistemological positions, yet the role advertisers play has generally been consigned to the role of the consumer of the audience product, their role in how the audience marketplace operates largely being overlooked. Using semi-structured interviews with advertising industry practitioners, this research project has revealed not only what role advertisers play in the audience marketplace but how new forms of digital advertising has changed how they operate both internally and with external stakeholders, )including media providers), how they think about audience measurement and data, and the continued importance of human practitioners in the advertising process.